A healthy diet has been shown to prevent cardiovascular diseases complications. The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and compliance with nutritional and lifestyle recommendations in French adults diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia or cardiovascular disease compared with healthy individuals.
Data was collected from 26,570 subjects aged 35 to 70 years (13,285 patients and 13,285 controls matched by sex and age) of the French cohort NutriNet-Santé. Dietary intakes were assessed using three 24-h records. Mean food and nutrient intakes of patients were compared to those of healthy subjects using multivariable mixed logistic and linear regressions.
Compared to healthy controls, adults reporting cardiometabolic diseases had lower intakes of sweetened products, higher intakes of fish and seafood and a better compliance with dairy products. However, overall, they reported unhealthier lifestyles and dietary habits. Indeed, they were less often physically active and had similar habits regarding alcohol and tobacco consumption. They also had lower intakes of fruit, higher intakes of meat, processed meat and added fats. It is noteworthy that diabetic subjects tended to show the highest compliance with certain dietary recommendations (vegetables, pulses and whole grain products).
Our study brings into focus the fact that some nutritional aspects still need to be improved among individuals with a cardiometabolic disease. We should encourage higher intakes of fruits and vegetables, whole grain products, and lower intakes of meat and sodium, as well as healthy lifestyle (physical activity, no-smoking and limited intake of alcohol) in order to encourage a healthier management after being diagnosed.