Neighborhood educational disparities in active commuting among women: the effect of distance between the place of residence and the place of work/study (an ACTI-Cités study)

BMC Public Health. 2017 17(1):569

Perchoux C, Nazare JA, Benmarhnia T, Salze P, Feuillet T, Hercberg S, Hess F, Menai M, Weber C, Charreire H, Enaux C, Oppert JM, Simon C.

BACKGROUND:

Active transportation has been associated with favorable health outcomes. Previous research highlighted the influence of neighborhood educational level on active transportation. However, little is known regarding the effect of commuting distance on social disparities in active commuting. In this regard, women have been poorly studied. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood educational level and active commuting, and to assess whether the commuting distance modifies this relationship in adult women.

METHODS:

This cross-sectional study is based on a subsample of women from the Nutrinet-Santé web-cohort (N = 1169). Binomial, log-binomial and negative binomial regressions were used to assess the associations between neighborhood education level and (i) the likelihood of reporting any active commuting time, and (ii) the share of commuting time made by active transportation modes. Potential effect measure modification of distance to work on the previous associations was assessed both on the additive and the multiplicative scales.

RESULTS:

Neighborhood education level was positively associated with the probability of reporting any active commuting time (relative risk = 1.774; p < 0.05) and the share of commuting time spent active (relative risk = 1.423; p < 0.05). The impact of neighborhood education was greater at long distances to work for both outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results suggest that neighborhood educational disparities in active commuting tend to increase with commuting distance among women. Further research is needed to provide geographically driven guidance for health promotion intervention aiming at reducing disparities in active transportation among socioeconomic groups.

 

Are self-reported unhealthy food choices associated with an increased risk of breast cancer? Prospective cohort study using the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system

BMJ Open. 2017 7(6):e013718

Deschasaux M, Julia C, Kesse-Guyot E, Lécuyer L, Adriouch S, Méjean C, Ducrot P, Péneau S, Latino-Martel P, Fezeu LK, Fassier P, Hercberg S, Touvier M.

French authorities are considering the implementation of a simplified nutrition labelling system on food products to help consumers make healthier food choices. One of the most documented candidates (Five-Colour Nutrition Label/Nutri-score) is based on the British Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System (FSA-NPS), a score calculated for each food/beverage using the 100 g amount of energy, sugar, saturated fatty acid, sodium, fibres, proteins, and fruits and vegetables. To assess its potential public health relevance, studies were conducted on the association between the nutritional quality of the diet, measured at the individual level by an energy-weighted mean of all FSA-NPS scores of foods usually consumed (FSA-NPS dietary index (FSA-NPS DI)), and the risk of chronic diseases. The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between the FSA-NPS DI and breast cancer risk.

Design : Prospective study,  NutriNet-Santé cohort, France .

Participants :46 864 women aged ≥35 years who completed ≥3 24-hour dietary records during their first 2 year of follow-up.

Outcome : Associations between FSA-NPS DI and breast cancer risk (555 incident breast cancers diagnosed between 2009 and 2015) were characterised by multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models.

A higher FSA-NPS DI (lower nutritional quality of the diet) was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (HR1-point increment=1.06 (1.02-1.11), p=0.005; HRQ5vs.Q1=1.52 (1.11-2.08), p trend=0.002). Similar trends were observed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women (HR1-point increment=1.09 (1.01-1.18) and 1.05 (1.00-1.11), respectively).This study was based on an observational cohort using self-reported dietary data, thus residual confounding cannot be entirely ruled out. Finally, this holistic approach does not allow investigating which factors in the diet most specifically influence breast cancer risk.

These results suggested that unhealthy food choices, as characterised by the FSA-NPS, may be associated with an increase in breast cancer risk, supporting the potential public health relevance of using this profiling system in the framework of public health nutritional measures.

Associations between transition to retirement and changes in dietary intakes in French adults (NutriNet-Santé cohort study).

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017 14(1):71

Si Hassen W, Castetbon K, Lelièvre E, Lampuré A, Hercberg S, Méjean C.

Few studies have focused on the influence of retirement on dietary behaviors. Our study aimed at assessing the associations between transition to retirement and changes in dietary intake in French adults, particularly according to spousal retirement and baseline income.

This prospective study included 577 French participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort who retired over a 5-year follow-up (2009-2014 or 2010-2015). At baseline and every year, dietary intakes were assessed using 24 h records. Repeated measures of dietary intake were analysed using mixed models adjusted for energy with random effects of time and period (before and after retirement) to assess changes following retirement for each gender.

After retirement, intakes of saturated fatty acids and sodium increased in both genders. Women showed specific changes after retirement: decrease in the score of adherence to recommendations and in intakes of fruits, proteins, vitamins; increase in intakes of fatty sweet products. In men with the lowest income at baseline, specific changes in intake were associated with retirement such as decrease in intake of dairy products and increase in intake of lipids.

Transition to retirement was associated with unhealthier dietary intakes. These results may help defining interventions during this vulnerable life-period.

Compliance with Nutritional and Lifestyle Recommendations in 13,000 Patients with a Cardiometabolic Disease from the Nutrinet-Santé Study.

Nutrients. 2017 9(6):e546

Adriouch S, Lelong H, Kesse-Guyot E, Baudry J, Lampuré A, Galan P, Hercberg S, Touvier M, Fezeu LK.

A healthy diet has been shown to prevent cardiovascular diseases complications. The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and compliance with nutritional and lifestyle recommendations in French adults diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia or cardiovascular disease compared with healthy individuals.

Data was collected from 26,570 subjects aged 35 to 70 years (13,285 patients and 13,285 controls matched by sex and age) of the French cohort NutriNet-Santé. Dietary intakes were assessed using three 24-h records. Mean food and nutrient intakes of patients were compared to those of healthy subjects using multivariable mixed logistic and linear regressions.

Compared to healthy controls, adults reporting cardiometabolic diseases had lower intakes of sweetened products, higher intakes of fish and seafood and a better compliance with dairy products. However, overall, they reported unhealthier lifestyles and dietary habits. Indeed, they were less often physically active and had similar habits regarding alcohol and tobacco consumption. They also had lower intakes of fruit, higher intakes of meat, processed meat and added fats. It is noteworthy that diabetic subjects tended to show the highest compliance with certain dietary recommendations (vegetables, pulses and whole grain products).

Our study brings into focus the fact that some nutritional aspects still need to be improved among individuals with a cardiometabolic disease. We should encourage higher intakes of fruits and vegetables, whole grain products, and lower intakes of meat and sodium, as well as healthy lifestyle (physical activity, no-smoking and limited intake of alcohol) in order to encourage a healthier management after being diagnosed.

Sociodemographic and economic factors are associated with weight gain between before and after cancer diagnosis: results from the prospective population-based NutriNet-Santé cohort.

Oncotarget. 2017 8(33):54640-54653

Fassier P, Zelek L, Bachmann P, Touillaud M, Druesne-Pecollo N, Partula V, Hercberg S, Galan P, Cohen P, Hoarau H, Latino-Martel P, Srour B, Gonzalez R, Deschasaux M, Touvier M.

While many cancer patients are affected by weight loss, others tend to gain weight, which may impact prognosis and risk of recurrence and of second cancer. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate weight variation between before and after cancer diagnosis and socio-demographic, economic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with moderate-to-severe weight gain.

1051 incident cases of first primary cancer were diagnosed in the NutriNet-Santé cohort between 2009 and 2015. Weight was prospectively collected every 6 months since subjects' inclusion (i.e. an average of 2y before diagnosis). Mean weights before and after cancer diagnosis were compared with paired Student's t-test. Factors associated with moderate-to-severe weight gain (≥5% of initial weight) were investigated by age and sex-adjusted logistic regression.

Weight loss was observed in men (-3.54±4.39kg in those who lost weight, p=0.0002) and in colorectal cancer patients (-3.94±4.40kg, p=0.001). Weight gain was observed in breast and skin cancers (2.83±3.21kg, p=0.04, and 2.96±2.75kg, p=0.04 respectively). Women (OR=1.75[1.06-2.87],p=0.03), younger patients (2.44[1.51-3.70],p<0.0001), those with lower income (OR=1.30[1.01-1.72],p-trend=0.007), lower education (OR=1.32[1.03-2.70],p-trend=0.03), excess weight before diagnosis (OR=1.64[1.12-2.42],p=0.01), lower physical activity (OR=1.28[1.01-1.64],p=0.04) and those who stopped smoking (OR=4.31[1.99-9.35],p=0.005]) were more likely to gain weight. In breast cancer patients, induced menopause was associated with weight gain (OR=4.12[1.76-9.67]), but no association was detected for tumor characteristics or treatments.

This large prospective cohort provided original results on weight variation between before and after cancer diagnosis, highlighting different weight trajectories. Socio-demographic and economic factors appeared to influence the risk of weight gain, illustrating social inequalities in health.

Association between Impulsivity and Weight Status in a General Population.

Nutrients. 2017 9(3):e217

Bénard M, Camilleri GM, Etilé F, Méjean C, Bellisle F, Reach G, Hercberg S, Péneau S.

The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis.
 
The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors.
 
Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71) were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women) compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m²) (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85).
 
This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity.

Association between a dietary quality index based on the food standard agency nutrient profiling system and cardiovascular disease risk among French adults.

Int J Cardiol. 2017 234:22-27

Adriouch S, Julia C, Kesse-Guyot E, Ducrot P, Péneau S, Méjean C, Assmann KE, Deschasaux M, Hercberg S, Touvier M, Fezeu LK.

In France, the implementation of a front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label-the 5-Colour Nutrition Label (5-CNL) is currently under consideration as a strategic tool to allow consumers making healthier food choices. This FOP label is based on the British Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System (FSA-NPS), reflecting the overall nutritional quality of foods. At the individual level, an energy-weighted mean of all FSA-NPS scores of foods usually consumed has been elaborated (FSA-NPS DI). Our objective was to investigate the prospective association between the FSA-NPS DI and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.

75,801 participants to the NutriNet-Santé cohort, who completed at least three 24h dietary records during the first 2y of the follow-up, were followed between 2009 and 2016. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to characterize the associations between FSA-NPS DI and the incidence of CVDs.

509 major cardiovascular events were diagnosed (262 coronary heart diseases and 247 strokes). A higher FSA-NPS DI, characterizing lower dietary quality, was associated with increased CVD risk (HRfor a 1-point increment=1.08 (1.03-1.13); HRQ4vs.Q1=1.40 (1.06-1.84), Ptrend Q4-Q1=0.01). This association tended to be stronger in overweight subjects (HRfor a 1-point increment=1.12 (1.04-1.19); Pinteraction=0.003).

These results suggest that lower dietary quality, as reflected by a higher FSA-NPS DI, may be associated with a significant increase in cardiovascular risk, especially in at-risk individuals (overweight population). They support the public health relevance of developing a front-of-pack nutrition label based on this score.

 

Beverage Consumption Habits among the European Population: Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes.

Nutrients. 2017 9(4):e383

Nissensohn M, Sanchez-Villegas A, Galan P, Turrini A, Arnault N, Mistura L, Ortiz-Andrellucchi A, Edelenyi FS, D'Addezio L, Serra-Majem L.

Fluid and water intake have received limited attention in epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to compare the average daily consumption of foods and beverages in adults of selective samples of the European Union (EU) population in order to understand the contribution of these to the total water intake (TWI), evaluate if the EU adult population consumes adequate amounts of total water (TW) according to the current guidelines, and to illustrate the real water intake in Europe.

Three national European dietary surveys have been selected: Spain used the Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance Study (ANIBES) population database, Italy analyzed data from the Italian National Food Consumption Survey (INRAN-SCAI 2005-06), and French data came from the NutriNet-Santé database. Mean daily consumption was used to compare between individuals. TWI was compared with European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference values for adult men and women.

On average, in Spain, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 22.9) for men and 1.6 L (SE 19.4) for women; Italy recorded 1.7 L (SE 16.9) for men and 1.7 L (SE 14.1) for women; and France recorded 2.3 L (SE 4.7) for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4) for women. With the exception of women in France, neither men nor women consumed sufficient amounts of water according to EFSA reference values.
This study highlights the need to formulate appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase TWI in the EU population. The future of beverage intake assessment requires the use of new instruments, techniques, and the application of the new available technologies.

Prospective association between consumption frequency of organic food and body weight change, risk of overweight or obesity: results from the NutriNet-Santé Study.

Br J Nutr. 2017 117(2):325-334

Kesse-Guyot E, Baudry J, Assmann KE, Galan P, Hercberg S, Lairon D.

A lower BMI has been reported among consumers of organic foods, but this relationship has never been examined in a prospective design study. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between frequency of organic food consumption and weight change. We analysed data from 62 224 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort (78 % women, mean age=45 years) with information on consumption frequency of organic foods, dietary intake and repeated anthropometric data. For sixteen products, participants reported their consumption frequency of labelled organic foods (never, occasionally, most of the time). An organic score (OS) with a maximum of thirty-two points was computed.

The associations of the OS (modeled as quartiles (Q)) with change in BMI during follow-up (on average 3·1 years) and with the risk of overweight and obesity were estimated by ANCOVA and multivariable logistic regression.

A lower BMI increase was observed across quartiles of the OS (mean difference Q4 v. Q1=-0·16 (95 % CI -0·32, -0·01). An increase in the OS was associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity (among non-overweight and non-obese participants at inclusion): OR for Q4 v. Q1 were 0·77 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·86) and 0·69 (95 % CI 0·58, 0·82), respectively. Concerning obesity risk, the association was stronger among participants with higher adherence to nutritional guidelines.

This study supports a strong protective role of consumption frequency of organic foods with regard to the risk of overweight and obesity that depends on overall dietary quality. Upon confirmation, these results may contribute to fine-tune nutritional guidelines by accounting for farming practices in food production.

Modifications in dietary and alcohol intakes between before and after cancer diagnosis: Results from the prospective population-based NutriNet-Santé cohort.

Int J Cancer. 2017 141(3):457-470

Fassier P, Zelek L, Lécuyer L, Bachmann P, Touillaud M, Druesne-Pecollo N, Galan P, Cohen P, Hoarau H, Latino-Martel P, Kesse-Guyot E, Baudry J, Hercberg S, Deschasaux M, Touvier M.

Postdiagnosis diet and alcohol consumption may be associated with cancer prognosis, recurrence and mortality. Our aim was to investigate food, nutrient and alcohol intake variations between before and after cancer diagnosis and their determinants in a prospective cohort.

Subjects (n = 696) were incident cancer cases diagnosed in the NutriNet-Santé cohort between 2009 and 2016. Food, nutrient and alcohol intakes were prospectively collected using repeated nonconsecutive 24-hr dietary records since subjects' inclusion (i.e. an average of 2 y before diagnosis). Mean number of dietary records per subject was 5.9 before and 8.1 after diagnosis. All dietary data before and after diagnosis were compared by mixed models. Factors associated with the main dietary changes observed were also investigated using multivariable logistic regressions.

We observed a decrease in intakes of vegetables (mean decrease in intake in patients who decreased their intake=-102.4 ± 79.8 g/d), dairy products (-93.9 ± 82.8 g/d), meat/offal (-35.5 ± 27.8/d), soy products (-85.8 ± 104.1 g/d), sweetened soft drinks (-77.9 ± 95.4 g/d), and alcoholic drinks (-92.9 ± 119.9 g/d), and an increase in broths (42.1 ± 34.9 g/d) and fats/sauces (18.0 ± 13.4 g/d). We observed a decrease in energy intake (-377.2 ± 243.5 kcal/d) and in intakes of alcohol (-7.6 ± 9.4 g/d) proteins (-17.4 ± 12.5 g/d), and several vitamins (p < 0.05) and micronutrients (p < 0.05). Conversely, lipid (19.4 ± 14.6 g/d), SFA (9.3 ± 7.0 g/d), MUFA (8.3 ± 6.3 g/d) and vitamin E (3.9 ± 3.3 mg/d) intakes increased after diagnosis.

This large prospective study suggests that cancer diagnosis is a key period for nutritional changes. It highlights some healthy behaviors such as a decrease in alcohol and sweetened drink consumption, but also less favorable trends, such as a decrease in vegetable consumption and in many vitamin and mineral intakes. These results provide insights to identify and target recommendations to put forward for better nutritional care of cancer survivors.