Functional gastrointestinal disorders in 35 447 adults and their association with body mass index.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015 41(8):758-67

Le Pluart D, Sabaté JM, Bouchoucha M, Hercberg S, Benamouzig R, Julia C

BACKGROUND:
Functional gastrointestinal disorders' (FGIDs) associations with body mass index (BMI) have not been thoroughly investigated in the general population.
AIM:
To investigate the overlap between functional dyspepsia (FDy), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional constipation (FC) and functional diarrhoea (FDh) and the relationship between BMI and those diagnoses in a large French adult population.
METHODS:
Subjects participating in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study completed a questionnaire based on Rome III criteria. Anthropometrics, socio-demographical and lifestyle data were collected via self-administered questionnaires. Associations between BMI and FGIDs were investigated with multivariate logistic regression.
RESULTS:
A total of 35 447 subjects were included in the analysis. Among subjects with FGIDs, 10.4% presented more than one disorder. [FDy coexisted with IBS (23.6%) and FC (15.1%)]. Associations between BMI and FDy differed according to sex. In females, higher odds were observed for underweight and obesity subgroups (OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 0.99-1.59), OR = 1.35 (1.08-1.69), OR = 1.20 (0.81-1.77), OR = 1.47 (0.89-2.42) for underweight, class I, II and III obesity respectively compared with normal BMI), forming a U-shaped relationship confirmed with nonlinear model (P < 0.001). In females, FDh was associated with BMI [OR = 1.05 (1.03-1.07), P < 0.001]. In males, a negative association between BMI and IBS was observed [OR = 0.97 (0.94-0.99), P=0.04]. Other associations were not significant.
CONCLUSIONS:
Our study showed an important overlap in FGIDs, supporting the contention of common pathophysiological mechanisms. Relationships between BMI and FGIDs appeared to be sex-dependent. Interaction by sex in the association between BMI and FGIDs should therefore be further explored.