Socio-economic indicators are independently associated with intake of animal foods in French adults

Public Health Nutr. 2016 19(17):3146-57

Méjean C, Si Hassen W, Lecossais C, Allès B, Péneau S, Hercberg S, Castetbon K

OBJECTIVE:

The specific role of major socio-economic indicators (education, occupation, income) in influencing consumer choice of animal foods (AF) intake could reveal distinct socio-economic facets, thus enabling elucidation of mechanisms leading to social inequalities in health. We investigated the independent association of each indicator with intake of different AF and their effect modification.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study. AF intake was estimated using three 24 h dietary records. Associations between socio-economic factors and AF intake and interactions between socio-economic indicators were assessed using ANCOVA adjusted for age and energy intake. Analyses were performed separately for men and women, since gender interactions were found.

SETTING:

France.

SUBJECTS:

Adults (n 92 036) participating in the NutriNet-Santé Study.

RESULTS:

Low educated persons had higher intake of red meat (+9-12 g/d), processed meat (+6-9 g/d) and poultry (for men, +7 g/d) than those with a higher education level. Percentage of fish consumers was lower in individuals of the lowest income class compared with those in higher classes. Manual workers had a higher intake of cream desserts (for men, +14 g/d) than managerial staff. Few significant interactions were found. In stratified analyses, persons with the highest income consumed more yoghurt than those who had lower income, only in low educated individuals.

CONCLUSIONS:

Socio-economic disparities in AF intake varied according to the socio-economic indicator, suggesting the specific influence of each indicator on AF intake. In particular, lower education was associated with higher intake of red and processed meats and cream desserts, and had an effect modification on the relationship between income and AF intake.

 

What Do People Know and Believe about Vitamin D?

Nutrients. 2016 8(11):e718

Deschasaux M, Souberbielle JC, Partula V, Lécuyer L, Gonzalez R, Srour B, Guinot C, Malvy D, Latino-Martel P, Druesne-Pecollo N, Galan P, Hercberg S, Kesse-Guyot E, Fassier P, Ezzedine K, Touvier M

People have been exposed to a lot of information regarding vitamin D, with evidence suggesting that vitamin D may be involved in numerous health conditions, subsequently creating concerns about vitamin D insufficiency. As a result, what do people really know or believe about this topic? In this cross-sectional study, we assessed vitamin D-related knowledge and beliefs in 59,273 French adults (NutriNet-Santé cohort) using a specific questionnaire. Answers to this questionnaire were weighted according to the French sociodemographic distribution and compared across individual characteristics, using χ²-tests. Physicians and media were identified as key information providers. Participants did not always accurately cite vitamin D sources (e.g., 72% only for sun exposure, fatty fish: 61%) or established health effects (e.g., bone health: 62%-78%). Conversely, they mentioned incorrect sources and health effects for which there is no consensus yet (e.g., skin cancer). These findings were modulated by age/generational and socioeconomic factors. A strong inconsistency was also observed between participants' true vitamin D status (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration) and their opinion about it. This study, the first in Europe with such a large sample, stresses the need for simple and up-to-date supports of communication for the public and healthcare professionals regarding sources and health effects of vitamin D.

Food Choice Motives When Purchasing in Organic and Conventional Consumer Clusters: Focus on Sustainable Concerns (The NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study)

Nutrients. 2017 9(2):e88

Baudry J, Péneau S, Allès B, Touvier M, Hercberg S, Galan P, Amiot MJ, Lairon D, Méjean C, Kesse-Guyot E.

The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: "absence of contaminants", "avoidance for environmental reasons", "ethics and environment", "taste", "innovation", "local and traditional production", "price", "health" and "convenience". Five consumers' clusters were identified: "standard conventional food small eaters", "unhealthy conventional food big eaters", "standard organic food small eaters", "green organic food eaters" and "hedonist moderate organic food eaters". Relationships between food choice motive dimension scores and consumers' clusters were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models adjusted for sociodemographic factors. "Green organic food eaters" had the highest mean score for the "health" dimension, while "unhealthy conventional food big eaters" obtained the lowest mean score for the "absence of contaminants" dimension. "Standard organic food small eaters", "green organic food eaters" and "hedonist moderate organic food eaters" had comparable scores for the "taste" dimension. "Unhealthy conventional food big eaters" had the highest mean score for the "price" dimension while "green organic food eaters" had the lowest mean scores for the "innovation" and "convenience" dimensions. These results provide new insights into the food choice motives of diverse consumers' profiles including "green" and "hedonist" eaters.

Major Change in Body Weight over 5 Years and Total Sleep Time: Investigation of Effect Modification by Sex and Obesity in a Large e-Cohort

Int J Behav Med. 2017

Andreeva VA, Torres MJ, Léger D, Bayon V, Gonzalez P, de Edelenyi FS, Hercberg S, Galan P.

PURPOSE:

We assessed the association of long-term weight change ≥5 kg with total sleep time (TST), investigating effect modification by sex and overweight/obesity.

METHOD:

In a cross-sectional context, we studied 41,610 adults from the general population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. A sleep questionnaire was self-administered in 2014. It included sleep logs for the estimation of average TST at night, and items for the calculation of major weight change as experienced over the previous 5 years. We fit multivariate polytomous logistic regression models.

RESULTS:

Overall, women with major weight loss had an increased likelihood of short TST (≤6 h) when compared with women with stable weight (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.25). Individuals with major weight gain had an increased likelihood of short TST compared with their counterparts with stable weight (men: OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05-1.37; women: OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.15-1.33). Men with major weight gain were less likely to report long TST compared with men with stable weight (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.97). Overweight or obesity did not moderate the associations.

CONCLUSIONS:

The study advances knowledge in the fields of public health and nutrition by providing some evidence of a sex-specific association of major weight change with both short and long TST. These associations merit future investigation in a longitudinal context with repeated, objective measures of both weight and sleep time, while applying more stringent interaction test criteria and accounting for changes in health behaviors.

 

Meal planning is associated with food variety, diet quality and body weight status in a large sample of French adults.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017 14(1):12

Ducrot P, Méjean C, Aroumougame V, Ibanez G, Allès B, Kesse-Guyot E, Hercberg S, Péneau S.

BACKGROUND:

Meal planning could be a potential tool to offset time scarcity and therefore encourage home meal preparation, which has been linked with an improved diet quality. However, to date, meal planning has received little attention in the scientific literature. The aim of our cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between meal planning and diet quality, including adherence to nutritional guidelines and food variety, as well as weight status.

METHODS:

Meal planning, i.e. planning ahead the foods that will be eaten for the next few days, was assessed in 40,554 participants of the web-based observational NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary measurements included intakes of energy, nutrients, food groups, and adherence to the French nutritional guidelines (mPNNS-GS) estimated through repeated 24-h dietary records. A food variety score was also calculated using Food Frequency Questionnaire. Weight and height were self-reported. Association between meal planning and dietary intakes were assessed using ANCOVAs, while associations with quartiles of mPNNS-GS scores, quartiles of food variety score and weight status categories (overweight, obesity) were evaluated using logistic regression models.

RESULTS:

A total of 57% of the participants declared to plan meals at least occasionally. Meal planners were more likely to have a higher mPNNS-GS (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 1.13, 95% CI: [1.07-1.20]), higher overall food variety (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 1.25, 95% CI: [1.18-1.32]). In women, meal planning was associated with lower odds of being overweight (OR = 0.92 [0.87-0.98]) and obese (OR = 0.79 [0.73-0.86]). In men, the association was significant for obesity only (OR = 0.81 [0.69-0.94]).

CONCLUSIONS:

Meal planning was associated with a healthier diet and less obesity. Although no causality can be inferred from the reported associations, these data suggest that meal planning could potentially be relevant for obesity prevention.

Socio-economic indicators are independently associated with intake of animal foods in French adults.

Public Health Nutr. 2016 19(17):3146-57

Méjean C, Si Hassen W, Lecossais C, Allès B, Péneau S, Hercberg S, Castetbon K

OBJECTIVE:

The specific role of major socio-economic indicators (education, occupation, income) in influencing consumer choice of animal foods (AF) intake could reveal distinct socio-economic facets, thus enabling elucidation of mechanisms leading to social inequalities in health. We investigated the independent association of each indicator with intake of different AF and their effect modification.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study. AF intake was estimated using three 24 h dietary records. Associations between socio-economic factors and AF intake and interactions between socio-economic indicators were assessed using ANCOVA adjusted for age and energy intake. Analyses were performed separately for men and women, since gender interactions were found.

SETTING:

France.

SUBJECTS:

Adults (n 92 036) participating in the NutriNet-Santé Study.

RESULTS:

Low educated persons had higher intake of red meat (+9-12 g/d), processed meat (+6-9 g/d) and poultry (for men, +7 g/d) than those with a higher education level. Percentage of fish consumers was lower in individuals of the lowest income class compared with those in higher classes. Manual workers had a higher intake of cream desserts (for men, +14 g/d) than managerial staff. Few significant interactions were found. In stratified analyses, persons with the highest income consumed more yoghurt than those who had lower income, only in low educated individuals.

CONCLUSIONS:

Socio-economic disparities in AF intake varied according to the socio-economic indicator, suggesting the specific influence of each indicator on AF intake. In particular, lower education was associated with higher intake of red and processed meats and cream desserts, and had an effect modification on the relationship between income and AF intake.

Intuitive Eating Dimensions Were Differently Associated with Food Intake in the General Population-Based NutriNet-Santé Study

J Nutr. 2017 147(1):61-69

Camilleri GM, Méjean C, Bellisle F, Andreeva VA, Kesse-Guyot E, Hercberg S, Péneau S.

BACKGROUND:

Intuitive eating (IE) is characterized by eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than emotional cues and not considering certain foods to be forbidden. Evidence supports an inverse association of IE with body mass index (BMI), but little is known about its association with food intake.

OBJECTIVE:

We aimed to examine the relation between IE and food intake in a large sample from the general adult population.

METHODS:

A total of 9581 men and 31,955 women aged ≥18 y participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were included in this cross-sectional analysis. IE was assessed by using the validated French version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (modeled in quartiles). Food intake was assessed by using ≥6 self-reported 24-h dietary records (2009-2015). The associations between IE subscales (Eating for Physical rather than Emotional Reasons, referred to as Physical Reasons; Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues, referred to as Cues; and Unconditional Permission to Eat, referred to as Permission) and food intake were assessed by using multiple linear and logistic regression models.

RESULTS:

In women, higher Physical Reasons and Cues scores were associated with lower energy intake (P < 0.0001). Also, a higher Physical Reasons score was associated with lower sweet- and fatty-food intake in both women (143 g/d in quartile 1 compared with 124 g/d in quartile 4) and men (153 compared with 138 g/d) and lower intakes of dairy products and meat, fish, and eggs in women (all P < 0.0001). A higher Cues score was associated with a lower intake of dairy products and meat, fish, and eggs in both sexes and a higher whole-grain intake in women (all P < 0.0001). In contrast, higher Permission scores were associated with a higher energy intake and unhealthier intake, including lower fruit, vegetable, and whole-grain intake (all P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS:

IE dimensions such as Physical Reasons and Cues subscales were associated with healthier dietary intakes overall, whereas the Permission dimension was associated with unhealthier dietary intakes. From a public health perspective, these findings suggest the importance of developing strategies to promote eating in response to hunger and satiety signals. This study was registered at eudract.ema.europa.eu as 2013-000929-31

What Do People Know and Believe about Vitamin D?

Nutrients. 2016 8(11):e718

Deschasaux M, Souberbielle JC, Partula V, Lécuyer L, Gonzalez R, Srour B, Guinot C, Malvy D, Latino-Martel P, Druesne-Pecollo N, Galan P, Hercberg S, Kesse-Guyot E, Fassier P, Ezzedine K, Touvier M

People have been exposed to a lot of information regarding vitamin D, with evidence suggesting that vitamin D may be involved in numerous health conditions, subsequently creating concerns about vitamin D insufficiency. As a result, what do people really know or believe about this topic? In this cross-sectional study, we assessed vitamin D-related knowledge and beliefs in 59,273 French adults (NutriNet-Santé cohort) using a specific questionnaire. Answers to this questionnaire were weighted according to the French sociodemographic distribution and compared across individual characteristics, using χ²-tests. Physicians and media were identified as key information providers. Participants did not always accurately cite vitamin D sources (e.g., 72% only for sun exposure, fatty fish: 61%) or established health effects (e.g., bone health: 62%-78%). Conversely, they mentioned incorrect sources and health effects for which there is no consensus yet (e.g., skin cancer). These findings were modulated by age/generational and socioeconomic factors. A strong inconsistency was also observed between participants' true vitamin D status (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration) and their opinion about it. This study, the first in Europe with such a large sample, stresses the need for simple and up-to-date supports of communication for the public and healthcare professionals regarding sources and health effects of vitamin D.

Socio-economic indicators are independently associated with intake of animal foods in French adults

Public Health Nutr. 2016 19(17):3146-57

Méjean C, Si Hassen W, Lecossais C, Allès B, Péneau S, Hercberg S, Castetbon K

OBJECTIVE:

The specific role of major socio-economic indicators (education, occupation, income) in influencing consumer choice of animal foods (AF) intake could reveal distinct socio-economic facets, thus enabling elucidation of mechanisms leading to social inequalities in health. We investigated the independent association of each indicator with intake of different AF and their effect modification.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study. AF intake was estimated using three 24 h dietary records. Associations between socio-economic factors and AF intake and interactions between socio-economic indicators were assessed using ANCOVA adjusted for age and energy intake. Analyses were performed separately for men and women, since gender interactions were found.

SETTING:

France.

SUBJECTS:

Adults (n 92 036) participating in the NutriNet-Santé Study.

RESULTS:

Low educated persons had higher intake of red meat (+9-12 g/d), processed meat (+6-9 g/d) and poultry (for men, +7 g/d) than those with a higher education level. Percentage of fish consumers was lower in individuals of the lowest income class compared with those in higher classes. Manual workers had a higher intake of cream desserts (for men, +14 g/d) than managerial staff. Few significant interactions were found. In stratified analyses, persons with the highest income consumed more yoghurt than those who had lower income, only in low educated individuals.

CONCLUSIONS:

Socio-economic disparities in AF intake varied according to the socio-economic indicator, suggesting the specific influence of each indicator on AF intake. In particular, lower education was associated with higher intake of red and processed meats and cream desserts, and had an effect modification on the relationship between income and AF intake.

Food Choice Motives When Purchasing in Organic and Conventional Consumer Clusters: Focus on Sustainable Concerns (The NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study)

Nutrients. 2017 9(2):e88

Baudry J, Péneau S, Allès B, Touvier M, Hercberg S, Galan P, Amiot MJ, Lairon D, Méjean C, Kesse-Guyot E.

The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: "absence of contaminants", "avoidance for environmental reasons", "ethics and environment", "taste", "innovation", "local and traditional production", "price", "health" and "convenience". Five consumers' clusters were identified: "standard conventional food small eaters", "unhealthy conventional food big eaters", "standard organic food small eaters", "green organic food eaters" and "hedonist moderate organic food eaters". Relationships between food choice motive dimension scores and consumers' clusters were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models adjusted for sociodemographic factors. "Green organic food eaters" had the highest mean score for the "health" dimension, while "unhealthy conventional food big eaters" obtained the lowest mean score for the "absence of contaminants" dimension. "Standard organic food small eaters", "green organic food eaters" and "hedonist moderate organic food eaters" had comparable scores for the "taste" dimension. "Unhealthy conventional food big eaters" had the highest mean score for the "price" dimension while "green organic food eaters" had the lowest mean scores for the "innovation" and "convenience" dimensions. These results provide new insights into the food choice motives of diverse consumers' profiles including "green" and "hedonist" eaters.